¿Sabías que las abejas no son los únicos insectos que trabajan con miel?

Antiguo 28-Jun-2017, 16:24
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Existen unas hormigas que trabajan almacenando miel, se les conoce con el nombre de hormigas melíferas, aunque Myrmecocystus es el nombre científico de este insecto.


El clima seco desértico permite el desarrollo de estas hormigas, por eso se pueden hallar en distintos lugares del mundo, como en Australia, África y Norteamérica.

Su actividad es una de las mayores curiosidades en el mundo de las hormigas. Pues a diferencia de las abejas, que almacenan la miel en panales, estas alojan el néctar dentro de los cuerpos vivos de hormigas obreras a las que se les llama “repletas”. La colonia depende de estos “frascos de miel” vivientes durante las épocas de escasez.





La peculiaridad de estas hormigas es que su abdomen esta tan dilatado como una uva, lleno de un líquido de color ambarino, aunque también van tomando el color de los alimentos que almacenan, siendo los más comunes, aparte del ambar, el verde, rojo, naranja y azul. Durante ese tiempo empiezan a ser incapaces de moverse a causa de sus hinchados vientres


¿Cómo puede otra hormiga depositar o extraer el alimento? Para ello emplea una contraseña tocando con sus antenas, las antenas de la hormiga “repleta”. Entonces esta abre la boca y destapa el “frasco de miel”. Una válvula especial en el estómago, compuesta de cuatro pliegues, regula la entrada y salida del líquido. A lo largo de la vida de las hormigas repletas, que suele extenderse por algunos meses, su cavidad abdominal puede vaciarse y llenarse varias veces.

Las hormigas que guardan la miel llevan vidas sedentarias, es decir, casi nunca se mueven, por lo que las demás hormigas las protegen, y por eso están seguras bajo tierra, donde están al abrigo de las sequías, el calor y los insectos depredadores.


¿De dónde viene la “miel”? Comúnmente trabajan en la noche, trepando a las plantas cercanas a su hormiguero, en busca de la savia y el néctar que les permitirá aumentar sus reservas. Por eso algunos hormigueros prefieren estar cerca de las acacias o los huizaches.

Las hormigas también tienen en sus hormigueros, unas “granjas” de áfidos o pulgones, estos pequeños insectos se nutren de lo que las hormigas les llevan. Entonces los pulgones emanan un líquido azucarado, llamado “miel del roció”. A continuación, las hormigas obreras ordeñan a los pulgones, aligerándolos un poco del exceso de este líquido.

Por último, las obreras alimentan a las “repletas” con el líquido que han recogido. Así que la mayor parte de la miel de rocío termina en el “banco de miel”.

¿Y cómo se benefician los pulgones de esta situación? Para empezar, las hormigas les dejan suficiente néctar; además, los protegen contra los parásitos y los depredadores. De modo que tanto las hormigas como los pulgones obtienen beneficio de esta interesante asociación.


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Antiguo 28-Jun-2017, 20:37
 
Y para polinización están los zancudos, picaflores, mariposas, abejorros entre otros.
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